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Please consider also since 18 May 2017:   the additional Luminous Quartz page


These types of quartz resonators are operating in the X-mode (longitudinal). They constituted in the 1920s and early 1930s often a secondary frequency standard. They were not excited and their signals used as a signal source, but they were excited by means of an external signal which has to have a relatively high power level, thus mostly originating from transmitters. It is not directly the power value that counts though it is the applied voltage that was necessary, by which means enough signal level was generated as to ignite the surrounding He-Ag (Ne) gas mixture at the places of high mechanical movement (strain), which is also constituting the voltage maximum. In the next page can be seen that the sector of maximum movement is changing a bit when it is excited by means of a third harmonics (n = 1, 3, 5 ...). These quartz resonators were quite popular in Germany, although I have obtained them from the UK some years ago. These may be, however, have been brought to this country after Germany had surrendered 

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