Deutsche Versuchsanstalt für Luftfahrt (D.V.L.) Institut für Betriebstoff Forschung

BIOS Final Report 119


Interrogation of evacuated personnel


Strass near Neurenberg (Nürenberg)

August 4th and 8th 1945

Reported by


BIOS Target No. 30/1.04

Fuels and Lubricants

Seemingly this file copy is not entirely complete


Aviation Fuels

    a)    Methods of Manufacture and Specifications

        (i)    A3 Fuel

        (ii)    B4 Fuel

        (iii)   C3 Fuel

        (iv)   Starting Fuel

        (v)    Running Out Fuel

        (vi)   Safety Fuels


        (b)    Engine Testing

        (c)    Gum Stability and Lead Stability

        (d)    Analytical Estimation of T.E.L. and Ethylene Dibromide

        (e)    Anti-Knock Additives

        Diesel Fuels

        Jet Propulsion Fuels

        Fuel for Flying Bombs

        D.V.L. Research on Combustion



The Luftwaffe employed three main types of aviation fuel. A3 fuel of 80 C.F.R. motor octane number and having an ethyl alcohol content of ca. 30% volume was used for training aircraft, B4 fuel of 89 octane number was the normal grade for operational aircraft and C3 fuel of 95 octane number was used in aircraft powered with high duty engines. In addition an easy starting fuel, comprising a blend of light gasoline and 5% lubricating oil and an unleaded "Running Out" fuel were also used. Recent specifications for these fuels are given. Safety fuels were not adopted by the Luftwaffe.

(d)    An important factor in the utilisation of German aviation fuels was the use of 120% overlap in the aero engines. This enabled very good weak mixture performance to be obtained even with the  highly aromatic C3 fuels.

(e)    The non-aromatic German aviation fuels gave no stability or storage problems but troubles due to gum formation and lead precipitation was encountered when the highly aromatic fuels were introduced. These difficulties were however overcome by the addition of 0.01% vol. of a phenolic inhibitor extracted from Welheim synthetic gasoline.

The various gasoline components available for blending in aviation fuel manufacture were as follows:

    VT100    Petroleum Gasoline

I have copied this list integrally as it provide most of the synthetic fuel plants.


Jet Propulsion fuels: ... Einlauf J2 .. ;

Fuel for flying bombs E1 The important requirements were cold stability high calorific value and freedom for corrosion. Anti-knock value, distillation properties and gum content were of no significance as shown in the specification dated 1943 ...

... Prof Jost who investigated adiabatic spontaneous ignition by compression and also slow oxidation at low temperatures along the lines originally followed by Pope, Dykstra and Edgar ...

Aero lubrication oils

The Luftwaffe used two grades of aero engine lubricating oils, namely S3 and V2 ...

S3 Lubrication oil was a blend of petroleum base oil, solvent refiner and having a viscosity of about 6°E at 50° C with synthetic bright stock of viscosity 6°E at 100° C. the latter being produced by the polymerisation of ethylene (I.G. Farben Leuna) and by the polymerisation of olefines obtained by cracking paraffine wax (Rhenania and Pölitz) ...

V2 Lubrication oils replaced the previously used Aero Shell Medium Oil (ASM) and comprised a petroleum oil compound with 3-4? of voltolised rape seed oil. It was supplied exclusively by Rhenania Ossag and found its main use in lower duty engines and also in the Junckers Jumo 205 and 207 aero diesel engines ..

Running out oil    For use in engines being set aside idle for an extended period Nachlaufschmierstoff T42 a very thin compound oil was employed ...




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