Allied report of April 1945 on German Radar
History of Radar
This interesting report provides very nice photographs and (some) data on various German Radar apparatus, be it sometimes with minor errors. It is, however, not always clear in what state of development sets were when these were captured. For instance, was it 1943 or 1944 and what time of the year? Owing to 'electronic warfare' techniques changed rapidly, sets were 'de facto' in a constant transition and/or modification. After say late 1942 a transition in German thinking occurred and new techniques were put into service. The Allies were able to introduce entirely new systems, whereas the Germans were sometimes forced to use odd systems, owing to the lack of resources (materials and qualified labour). It is to say, that they were, nevertheless, capable of introducing some new systems, but always with very great difficulties (and never enough). A downside was, that this reduced(hampered) their overall industrial output severely.
Front view of Würzburg type D (FuSE39 D or FuMG62 D). The IFF antennae might originate from an early type D or maybe type C, as the odd Würzburg IFF had been replaced by FuG25a (Erstling), also known as "Gemse - Kuh". All German radars were adapted to this IFF standard. The rotary dipole provided pencil-beam-scanning, which is also known as conical-scanning. It was originally invented by Wilhelm Runge and Stepp of Telefunken (see Patent DE), it was based on patent DE767460 application date 15 August 1937, though owned by Telefunken, as Runge was the director of their research lab., it was, however, granted on 26 June 1952) Please, don't forget that the photo quality can be enhanced by copying a picture onto your clip-board and then paste it into a Word or WordPerfect document (or that like)
Shown is, a side view of a Würzburg FuSE62 D. What they call 'main presentation unit', is the odd OSZ62. The main presentation unit is type ANG 62. But it proved that it was more convenient to continue the use of a second presentation CRT.
The fine ranging (measuring) unit is type EAG62. The unit right of it, in the background, is the coarse range - azimuth and elevation display ANG62. Consider also: Würzburg set-up and Rehbock, which are both part of our collection. The 'Pintsch line voltage regulator' is of the 'carbon-pile' type and reduced the 220 volt mains to a stabilized 180 volt a.c. Power supply NA III provided negative voltage for (valve)grids. The elevation wheel had to be controlled by a special elevation operator, which information he could discern from the small CRT display, just visible in the upper part of ANG62
One of the striking advantages of German electronic design is, their modular concepts. The mounting frames constituted convenient maintenance, as units (modules) could easily be changed. All mounting frames (Aufhängerahmen) were linked onto the interconnecting-wiring by means of 'flat cables'. The pointer 'for IF unit ZFV62' is pointing at such a flat-cable connector. Its accompanied flat-cable is recognisable. We can see that all frames were connected this way. The exception is the frame marked for 'IFF". This is why I questioned from what period (1942 - 1944) this particular radar set is? Originally, Würzburg utilized a quite odd IFF system and after say late 1942 or early 1943 this IFF system had been made redundant. After German radars were jammed effectively, this space was used for 'Goldammer' and its successor anti-jamming devices (ECCM)
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T 11-219 part 1 keywords: Freya radar Pole type; IFF FuG25a, FuG25 airborne IFF transmitter-receiver; nice pictures of inside; FuG200 Hohentwiel data and pictures of recued parts; FuG202 Lichtenstein data and antennae at a Ju88 night-fighter aircraft; Lichtenstein R (rear looking set); FuG 216 'Neptun'radar set data, picture of its indicator SG216(=Sichtgerät 216)
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T 11-219 part 2 keywords: Ground radar; Freya; Coast Watchers (Seetakt); Freya Limber type EW Radar; pictures of Freya measuring cabine; Freya transmitter GTU100, Modulator TS102 (modulator valve RS391); Filament transformer TN100; picture of transmitter with a pair of TS41 valves(tubes); Freya presentation unit NB, Freya receiver NE, Freya fine range presentation(display) OB, Delay-line unit OK (Messkette)(this unit is more or less eaqual to what is utilized in Jagdschloss radars, see particularly the third picture), Freya Master Tone Generator ZP100 (see Jagdschloss third picture on the far left); Hoarding (Mammut)(big and small) EW Radar data and line drawings; Chimney (Cylinder type) Wassermann Long Range EW radar*, drawings; Chimney (Girder type) Wassermann L long range EW radar data and antenna drawing; Coastwatcher (Seetakt) radar (EW type VS ships) operating at 375 MHz, variant Coatswatcher large consists of a rotating cabine manufactured by Gema and introduced in 1939, data and drawing, pictures of Coatswatcher receiver type IF- GNZ102, Front-end typeNA101; Seetakt transmitter type TU106 (a pair of TS6 valves) and transmitter mounting frame type T106; Pulse-modulator type TN103; FuMG39L (not standard, as it was designed by C. Lorenz instead of Telefunken), FuMG39T (FMG39T) Würzburg GL** radar data *= Early warning. **= Gunl Laying
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T 11-219 part 3 keywords: FuMG39 C (FMG39T), FuMG39T (D) (=FuSE 39 D), data, Grille rotable antenna-dipole DA62; SÜ62 transmitter and receiver box, Posaune the adjustable wave-lines which were part of the transmit/receive (T/R) circuit; Lokomotive S62, also inside picture; IG62 (Igel) pulse-modulator; ZFV62 or IF module; rear and front inside views of EAG62; Dunkelpunt & Verstärker module which generated the central range marker pulse; Inside pictures of ANG62 (see photo below)
Side vision of the right-hand side of the ANG62 display unit. Module A is the circular time base generator/deflection amplifier. The coils of the circular magnetic deflection-yokes were tuned at 3750 Hz. The two coil sections were, however, fed 90° out of phase. This technique, by the way invented by Manfred von Ardenne in the early 1930s, guaranteed an extremely linear circular time base-line. 'T' is the lever of the 'Taunus' mode switch. Taunus differentiated the displayed video pulses, as to indicate the slope response of radar-signals. Window (now called Chaff) gave reflections with a weak slope and targets was expected to provide steeper signal slopes. Module 'D' was not employed for IF control, though, had sometime two functions: first it was used to provide a dark-spot marker in the main range screen, as to indicate where the fine-range operator was actually looking at. Later it was left out and this unit was converted to carry the so-called 'Neurnberg' system, which used gated-signals. The fine-range operator (EAG62 operator) had in the centre of his screen a blanking marker. This marker pulse was used as to de-block (gating) a LF-amplifier (creating a window). When a target was being observed, the video signal (the target signal) was sent to a pair of headphones. The prf of Würzburg was 3750 for the small set and 1875 Hz for Giant Würzburg and both signals are within the human audio spectrum. Aircraft of those days were generally using propellers and the radar signals were also chopped or modulated by its rotation frequency. This video or audio spectrum had to be listened for, as only aircraft could reflect such signals. Whereas Window never could fake German radar signals that way. Its principle is known as 'Propeller modulation', and was invented about 1934 in the US. Though, they themselves hadn't employed these techniques. Both, Taunus and Neurnberg helped the radar operators to discern between fake or real radar signals. However, despite these new efforts, results were very dependant upon the skills of German radar operators. Consider also my book "Deckname Würzburg" which extensively explains this technique. The Neurnberg and Taunus features were often indicated(marked) with the characters 'T' and 'N'. Regard also: RCM vs Wurzburg, the second picture shows 'NWT'; 'W' means 'Würzlaus' which is a kind of 'moving target discriminator' based on the Doppler phenomenon (coherent signals, the "signal cancellation" took place (occurred) in the brains of the radar screen operator).
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